Heat Exchangers

Heat exchangers provide optimum solution for all requirements encountered because of the wide range of heat exchangers available. This is as coil type heat exchangers, which are available as condensers, boilers and immersion heat exchangers and shell, & tube type heat exchangers, which are designed for use with tubes in widest possible range of corrosion resistant materials.


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Coil Type Heat Exchancers

Coil type heat exchangers are all glass design where coil battery is welded directly to glass jacket. This is of importance for plants which have to confirm to GMP requirements since it ensures that product & coolants cannot come in contact with each other. Coil type heat exchangers are mainly used as condensers or coolers. They can also be used for heat transfer between liquids & gases. Turbulent flow is ensured even in large bore heat exchangers since coil layers are offset & fill the flow cross section to great extent.

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Following points should be taken in account while using coil type heat exchangers.

1. When connecting coolant lines to coil type condensers; flexible hose or bellow should be used to avoid transfer of stresses to the glass

2. Use of steam in coil should be avoided.

3. Coolant should not be allowed to be heated up to boiling point.

4. Coolant control valve should be turned on slowly particularly when air is present in the coils.

5. Complete drain of coolant should be allowed.

6. Brine can be used in coil in close circuit with suitable precaution against water hammering.

7. Vapour should be passed through shell only.

8. Maximum pressure of coolant should be 2.7 bar

9. Freezing of water in the coil should be avoided.

10. Condensers should preferably be mounted in vertical position.

11. Heat exchangers should be mounted in series to provide large surface area.



Typical Heat Exchanger Arrangement
JMR

Area (m²) DN DN1 L L1 Type Reference
0,2 40 16 600 100 A SHE1.5/2
0,3 50 16 600 100 A SHE2/3
             
0,35 80 16 600 100 B SHE3/3.5
0,5 100 19 600 100 B SHE4/5
0,6 100 19 750 100 B SHE4/6


Technical data

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Reference Area (m²) Free cross sec.area shell(cm²) Weight empty kg. Weight with coils full(water) kg. Shell capacity ltr.
SHE1.5/2 0,2 4.5 1.0 1.3 1.0
SHE2/3 0,3 5 1.5 2.0 1.25
SHE3/3.5 0,35 5 1.8 2.4 2.0
SHE4/5 0,5 18 4.5 5.3 4.0
SHE4/6 0,6 30 5.0 6.0 6.0
SHE6/10 1,0 52 6.8 9.5 9.0
SHE6/15 1,5 52 10.0 14.0 11.0
SHE9/25 2,5 142 16.0 23.0 18.0
SHE12/25 2,5 210 21.0 29.0 25.0
SHE12/40 4,0 258 30.0 43.0 35.0
SHE16/40 4,0 450 38.0 54.0 55.0
SHE16/50 5,0 450 41.0 60.0 65.0
SHE18/60 6,0 820 45.0 61.0 100.0
SHE18/80 8,0 820 54.0 74.0 107.0


Performance data

The heat transfer coefficients also varies from one size of condenser to another but as a guide, the table below given as indication of the performance of condenser at atmospheric pressure, using water (inlet temperature 300 C) as coolant in the coils condensing in the jackets.

The figures do not show the maximum performance of the units but are a general indication of typical working conditions.


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Jacket Side Medium Vapour to be Condensed Liquid Gas
Coil side medium Cooling water Cooilng water Cooilng water
Heat transf. coeff      
kcal/hr - m2o C 200-250 100-150 40-60


The table below shows figures calculated on this basis for the condensation of steam at atmospheric pressure and a cooling water throughput for a maximum pressure drop of 2.5 bar in the coils (inlet temperature 30°C).

Reference Area (m²) (l/h) Coolant Throughput (kg/h) Steam Condensed
SHE1.5/2 0,2 700 7
SHE2/3 0,3 1200 12
SHE3/3.5 0,35 1200 12
SHE4/5 0,5 2200 18
SHE4/6 0,6 2200 20
SHE6/10 1,0 2300 32
SHE6/15 1,5 2300 50
SHE9/25 2,5 3000 90
SHE12/25 2,5 2750 80
SHE12/40 4,0 4200 128
SHE16/40 4,0 4800 170
SHE16/50 5,0 5800 185
SHE18/60 6,0 5800 200
SHE18/80 8,0 6100 265


COIL TYPE BOILERS

Coil type boilers are predominantly used as circulatory evaporators. They are used for vaporizing liquids by passing steam in the coils. Boilers are made by fusing no of parallel coils in the glass shell. Boilers coils are designed to provided bigger cross section in shell side as compared to condensers. The maximum permissible steam pressure at inlet in coil is 3 bars for boilers. This pressure can provide temperature of 1430 C with saturated steam. Higher temperature can be achieved by using suitable thermic fluid.

Following points should be taken in account while using coil type boilers.

1. Flexible hoses should be used on coil inlet & outlet.

2. Steam inlet line should be adequately trapped to avoid possibility of steam hammering.

3. Start up by pass valve should be installed on coil outlet to clear the line of very heavy condensate flow produced on start up.

4. Control valve & pressure gauge should be placed very near the steam inlet of the coil.

5. Coil type boilers should not be fitted at bottom of columns or vessels as adequate circulation cannot be guaranteed in these locations.

6. Boiler should be mounted in an external circulatory loop as shown in figure.

7. Boilers can be mounted in series to provide larger heat transfer area.

8. Preheated liquids should be used for better result in boilers.

9. The steam pressure should always be adequate enough to ensure effective & smooth condensate removal. This pressure will vary on the size of boilers.


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Are (m²) DN DN1 DN2 L L1 L2 Type Reference
0.15 100 25 25 380 125 100 A SHEB 4
0.15 100 25 - 405 125 100 B SHEB 4/4
0.50 150 40 25 455 150 90 A SHEB 6
0.50 150 25 - 510 150 100 B SHEB 6/6
1.50 225 40 25 710 180 140 A SHEB 9
1.20 225 25 - 710 180 115 B SHEB 9/9
2.00 300 25 25 700 215 135 B SHEB 12/12


Technical data

Reference Area (m²) Capacity Coil (l) Jacket (I)
SHEB 4 0.15 0.25 2
SHEB 4/4 0.15 0.25 3
SHEB 6 0.50 1.3 5
SHEB 6/6 0.50 1.3 7
SHEB 9 1.50 4.5 16
SHEB 9/9 1.20 4.5 20
SHEB 12/12 2.00 5.0 40


Performance data

The maximum permissible steam pressure at the coil inlets of boilers is 3.0 bar.g. which is equivalent to a temperature of about 143°C with saturated steam. Higher temperatures can be achieved by using heat transfer fluids.

The heat transferred in most size can be considered on average as 400 W/m²K a steam pressure in the coils of 3.0 bar.g, although this figure declines marginally at lover pressure.

The table shows typical performances of boilers indicating the amount of water evaporated at atmospheric pressure with steam in the coils at various pressure.

Note : if the feed is cold, the performance of the boiler will be only about 85% of the figures quoted.



Reference Surface are(m²) Steam pressure (bar.g) Water evaporated (kg/h)
SHEB 4 0.15 1.0 1.9
    3.0 4.1
SHEB 6 0.50 1.0 6.5
    3.0 12
SHEB 9 1.50 1.0 19
    3.0 41
SHEB 4/4 0.15 1.1 1.9
    3.0 41
SHEB 6/6 0.50 1.0 6.5
    3.0 13
SHEB 9/9 1.20 1.0 14
    3.0 41
SHEB 12/12 2.0 3.0 51


IMMERSION HEAT EXCHANGERS

Following points should be taken in account while using coil type boiler :

1. Immersion heat exchangers are not recommended for use with products, which have a tendency to crystalise.

2. The coils must always be completely immersed in liquid.



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Actual H.T.A.m² DN DN1 DN2 L L1 D Reference
0.4 150 40 25 200 200 145 SHEM 6
0.6 225 40 25 300 200 200 SHEM 9






LIQUID COOLER

Liquid coolers are used typically for the cooling of products from distillation columns and can be connected directly to the reflux head in a column.

The product flows from top to the bottom of the unit through the coil battery across which the cooling water flows from bottom to top in the shell. Liquid coolers provide more resident time to the product to be cooled.


JMR

Area m²) DN DN1 DN2 L Type Reference
0.1 40 25 16 600 A SHEF 1/1
0.2 50 25 16 600 A SHEF 1/2
0.3 80 25 16 600 A SHEF 1/3
0.35 100 25 19 600 A SHEF 1/3.5
0.50 150 25 25 600 B SHEF 1/5
1.00 150 25 25 600 B SHEF 1/10
1.25 150 25 25 850 B SHEF 1/15




VENT CONDENSERS

Vent condenser is installed before vacuum pumps or in vent gas lines to remove any components in vapour form still remaining in the gas stream after the main condenser.

Their compact design makes them ideal for fitting directly in pipe work without the need for any reduction.


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Area (m²) DN DN1 DN2 L L1 L2 Reference
0.6 100 25 15 800 100 125 SHEG 1/6
0.6 100 50 15 800 100 125 SHEG 2/6










SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Shell

Shell & tube exchangers are used particularly where large heat transfer area is required in combination with efficient heat transfer & compactness. These are widely used in industry for duties like cooling, heating, condensation, evaporation etc. They can be designed for single pass or multi-pass on tube side as per your requirement. The overall heat transfer co-efficient in shell and tube heat exchanger is about three times higher then in coil type heat exchangers. Whenever requirement of heat transfer area is high; shell & tube heat exchanger is the only alternative. The pressure drop of coolant in shell & tube heat exchanger is minimal compared to approximately 2 kgs in coil type heat exchanger.



Reference Shells Fittings End Tubes of passes Number
SRGG Glass Glass Glass 1
SRGM Glass Steel Glass 1/2/3
SRMG Steel Glass Glass 1


Construction Features

The glass tube are sealed individually into PTFE tube sheet with special PTFE sockets and packing. This unique ferrule type sealling arrangment permits easy replacements and cleaning of tubes. Baffles on shell side ensure improved heat transfer by increased turbulence. Further details of construction can be seen in the diagram.

1.GLASS BONNET

2 PTFE TUBE SHEET

3 THREADED BUSH

4 GLASS TUBE

5 BAFFLE

6 METAL / GLASS SHELL

7 PTFE TUBE

8 TIE ROD IN PTFE

9 CAST IRON FLANGE

10 SPRING

11 SCREWED ROD OR NUT

12 INSERT




Reference SRGG SRMG 4/24/3 6/1 6/2 6/3 6/4 6/5 6/6 9/4 9/5 9/6 9/8 9/1 09/12 12/10 12/12 12/16 12/21 12/25
HTA (sq.m.) 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 5 6 8 10 12 10 12 16 21 25
DN 100 150 225 300
DN1 50 80 100 150
DN2 40 50 80 80
DN3 25 25 40 40
DN4 40 50 50 50
H1 125 175 250 300
H2 125 150 205 240
L 2600 3870 1300 1480 1950 2450 3250 3950 1300 1600 1930 2430 3230 3930 1500 1900 2400 3200 3900
L1 3105 4380 1890 2075 2545 3045 3850 4550 2240 2545 2885 3375 4180 4880 2520 2925 3425 4230 4465
L2 375 445 695 735
L3 2355 3630 1000 1180 1655 2155 2960 3660 850 1155 1485 1985 2790 3490 1050 1455 1955 2760 3465
L4 375 445 695 735
L5 2660 3935 1375 1555 2030 2530 3335 4035 1395 1700 2030 2530 3335 4035 1625 2030 2530 3335 4035
L6 85 115 175 200
NT 19 19 37 37 37 37 37 73 151
NB 19 24 07 08 11 14 19 24 4 5 7 9 13 17 4 5 7 10 15
TS 40 50 60 75
Weight in Kg. (Approx.)
SRGG 37 49 38 44 54 60 74 82 76 90 98 110 138 155 152 179 200 245 276
SRGM 43 55 48 54 64 70 84 92 80 94 102 114 142 158 156 203 204 249 280
TS = TubeSheet NB = No. of Baffles L = Shell Langth
DN = Shell Dia NT = No. of Tubes L5 = Tube Length





Reference SFRGM 4/24/3 6/1 6/2 6/3 6/4 6/5 6/6 9/4 9/5 9/6 9/8 9/10 9/12 12/10 12/12 12/16 12/21 12/25
HTA (sq.m.) 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 5 6 8 10 12 10 12 16 21 25
DN 100 150 225 300
DN1 80 100 150 225
DN2 50 80 100 150
DN3 40 50 80 80
DN4 40 50 80 80
H1 150 200 275 300
H2 125 175 250 300
L 2600 3870 1300 1480 1950 2450 3250 3950 1300 1600 1930 2430 3230 3930 1500 1900 2400 3200 3900
L1 2915 4190 1650 1835 2305 2805 3610 4310 1730 2035 2365 2865 3670 4370 2060 2465 2965 3770 4470
L2 305 325 440 580
L3 2330 3605 1025 1210 1680 2180 2985 3685 850 1155 1485 1985 2790 3490 975 1380 1880 2685 3385
L4 280 325 440 505
L5 2660 3935 1375 1555 2030 2530 3335 4035 1395 1700 2030 2530 3335 4035 1625 2030 2530 3335 4035
NT 19 19 37 37 37 37 37 73 151
NB 19 24 07 08 11 14 19 24 4 5 7 9 13 17 4 5 7 10 15
TS 40 50 60 75
TS = Tube Sheet NB = No. of Baffles L = Shell Langth
DN = Shell Dia NT = No. of Tubes L5 = Tube Length


All Glass Tubes have an external diameter of 14 mm and a wall thickness of 1.5mm (min.) Orientation of branch connections can be changed on request.



Permissible Operating Conditions

For both coil type and shell and tube heat exchangers the permissible operating conditions for glass shell and headers are based on the diameter.

All Heat Exchangers can be operated under full vacuum.

Operating Temperature Range : (—) 40°C to 200°C on either side.

Diff. temperature : <120°C]

or shell and tube type heat exchangers, the permissible operating conditions for steel shell and bonnet can be determined from the table


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DN 100 DN 150 DN 225 DN 300
Detail of Construction
Shell Side Glass Shell 2.0 bar.g 2.0 bar.g 1.0 bar.g 0.7 bar.g
Steel Shell 3.5 bar.g 3.5 bar.g 3.5 bar.g 3.5 bar.g
Tube Side Glass Bonnet 2.0 bar.g 2.0 bar.g 1.0 bar.g 0.7 bar.g
Steel Bonnet 2.5 bar.g 2.5 bar.g 2.5 bar.g 2.5 bar.g


Performance & design data

Table given below indicates performance of glass shell and tube heat exchanger in several typical application. More specific advice can be given on receipt of details.



Type of Heat transfer Basic Kcal/m² hr°C
Liquid - Liquid Cooling - Water - water Water - organic solvents Water - oil Water - air 500 - 600 250 - 600 75 - 350 25 - 250
Liquid - Gas Condensation - Water - water Water - organic solvents 600 - 900 400 - 600
Evaporation - Steam - organic solvents Steam - water 400 - 600 500 - 900


Support

Generally two types of supports are used in shell and tube heat exchanger depends upon MOC of shell & tube heat exchangers.

MOC of these supports is MS.


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